Books that include early history of the family(1) relay a vague, partly fictionalized and occasionally conflicting story that Benjamin Warner came from Krasnoshiltz in either Poland or the Russian Empire to Baltimore in 1883 or 1885. The rest of his family followed. His wife was Pearl and two surviving children came with her: Anna and Hirsch, later known as Harry Morris Warner. In Baltimore Abraham/Albert, Samuel, Rose and Fannie were born. Sons David and Jacob/Jack were born in London, Ontario. The family returned to Baltimore after several years, then moved to Youngstown, Ohio, where Sadie and Milton were born.
Beginning with the United States Federal Census, the 1900 enumeration places the Warner family in Youngstown, Ohio.(2) That source says Anna, Harry, Abraham and Samuel were born in Russia. The rest were born in Maryland. Their immigration date is 1886. The 1910 census has children Harry M. and Samuel born in Russia, Jack and David born in Canada and the rest in Maryland.(3)
The World War I draft cards for Albert, Samuel Louis and Harry Morris Warner (which give their occupations and confirm they were who we know as "The Warner Brothers") say they were not native born, but naturalized citizens based on their father's naturalization.(4) The Warner's origin in Krasnoshiltz is confirmed on Benjamin's death certificate.(5) The informant was his son Abe, and Benjamin's place of birth is written as "Krasnanashiltz." Krasnoshiltz, at one time in the Russian Empire, is now the Polish town Krasnocielc. This is also a primary source for Pearl's maiden name Eichelbaum, she being named as Benjamin's wife.
From these records it is clear that the Warners did not immigrate in the first half of the 1880s and that Samuel was not born in Baltimore as is widely stated. United States Federal censuses are particularly unreliable sources for accurate immigration dates. The 1910 census appears very unreliable by giving the dates of 1898 and 1899. The 1894 date for the arrival in the United States of the two sons born in Canada is reasonable. If 1898 and 1899 are changed to 1888 and 1889, it would allow for all the children down to Rose to be born in Russia before the family immigrated, which other evidence indicates.
To further explore the origins of this family, it is helpful to know that the 1883-1885 immigration period must be wrong before research into passenger lists. Abraham and Pearl clearly had children in Russia after those years. In the indeces to passenger lists involving Europeans coming to Great Britain and the United States, only one possiblity turns up for Benjamin and that is Benjamin Wonsal in 1888. All the information given for this man matches what has been accepted about Benjamin Warner except the immigration date, which is evidently incorrect. Benjamin "Wonsal" of Krasnoshiltz left Hamburg, Germany, for Liverpool, England, on the British steamship Chester.(6)
Using 1889 as a start year for the rest of the family, only one possible family group turns up. In October 1889 Pere Urnsal arrived in Baltimore on the German steamship Hermann, having embarked at Bremen, Germany.(8) Pere is on the passenger list as a male peddler, age 37, with Rifke, 10, Moses, 9, Abraham, 6, Schmul, 3, and Reisel, 10 months. They were Russians, and their declared final destination was Maryland. They travelled in steerage.
It would help to know under exactly what circumstances the passenger list was made. It seems unlikely the final documents presented to customs houses were made at the time information about the passengers were taken on the ship, given their condition and neatness. They appear to be transcriptions, likely made before the ship docked at its destination. It's also possible that the person taking the information was not the same as the one making the final list. Anything like phonetic interpretations, misunderstandings or information left out when the passengers were questioned would then be settled one way or another on the final list. The cryptic "Pere" was not obviously male or female as most other given names would indicate, yet a gender had to be indicated. The original notes may have said age 31, but it also looked like 37. Not having an occupation noted for this supposed male in the original notes, peddler was chosen arbitrarily. As noted above, German passenger lists used "peddler" to cover a wide range of occupations, even when the passenger clearly was capable of giving more specific information. In Benjamin's case, shoemaker. Passenger lists are known to have mistakes, especially those in the 19th century involving large numbers of poor immigrants speaking different languages and from diverse cultures. If this was the case with "Pere Urnsal," the extent of the mistakes, while atypical, aren't out of the realm of reason.
Nineteenth-century passenger lists found in the various customs offices in the United States are those made on board the ships. They were used by the American customs officers when checking passengers in person, in the case of the Warners, at Castle Garden in New York City. No new lists were made and no new names were forced on immigrants at customs as is often supposed. Reviewing publications and online webpages, it is generally accepted that Benjamin Warner chose his last name once in the United States and that the original name was unknown to descendants. The documentary The Brothers Warner, aired as part of the PBS "American Masters" series, includes a telephone conversation between creator Cass Warner Sperling and a woman who says that Benjamin Warner was the brother of one of her ancestors and that the surname of the family was "Wonskolaser." No further evidence was given to support this, and a search of published indexes to primary records for anyone with this name who could have been of Benjamin's generation was not fruitful. Why was Mr. Wonskolaser thought to have been Benjamin Warner's relative? If Benjamin Wonsal was Benjamin Warner, it is reasonable to imagine him simplifying the name Wonskolaser to Wonsal, for whatever reason. However, "Wonsal" is a name that appears in 19th century vital records for the Lomza Gubernia, which then included Krasnoshiltz.(10)
Summary of proposed corrections to the accepted early history of the Benjamin Warner family
Benjamin "Wonsal" immigrated from Hamburg to Liverpool on the ship Chester in January 1888, then from Liverpool to Baltimore on the ship Polynesian in January and February 1888. His wife Pearl was the "Pere Urnsal" who came to Baltimore from Bremen on the ship Hermann in October 1889. Travelling with her were her children "Rifke," "Moses," "Abraham," "Schmul" and infant "Reisel." In Baltimore the family name was changed to Warner. Rifke, who may have had the second name Hannah, was given the name Anna. Moses, whom the Warner family also calls Hirsch, became Harry Morris. Abraham became Albert in his adulthood. Schmul, who may have had the second name Levy,(11) became Samuel Louis and Reisel became Rose. Harry, Albert, Samuel and their younger brother Jack eventually entered the motion picture business and started the "Warner Brothers" film studio.
The Warner brothers of the motion picture industry
Harry Morris Warner, original name perhaps Hirsch Moses Wonsal (the Warner family refers to him as Hirsch), born in the Russian Empire, probably in the town of Krasnoshiltz, 12 December 1881.
Albert Warner, original name perhaps Abraham Wonsal, born in the Russian Empire, probably in the town of Krasnoshiltz, 23 July 1883.(12)
Samuel Louis Warner, original name perhaps Schmuel Levy Wonsal, born in the Russian Empire, probably in the town of Krasnoshiltz, 10 August 1885.(13)
Jack Leonard Warner, original first name was Jacob, born in London, Ontario.
1. Prominent among them are: Bob Thomas, Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner, (McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New York:1990); Cass Sperling, Cork Millner, Jack Warner, Hollywood be thy Name, the Warner Brothers Story (University Press of Kentucky:1998); Michael Freedland, The Warner Brothers (Harrap:1983).
2. Ancestry.com, 1900 United States Federal Census [database on-line], (Provo, UT, The Generations Network, Inc.: 2004); from United States of America, Bureau of the Census, Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH, Ward 1 (Washington, D.C., National Archives and Records Administration: 1900), Roll T623 1300, E. D. 58, pg. 24A.
3. Ancestry.com, 1910 United States Federal Census [database on-line], (Provo, UT, The Generations Network, Inc.: 2004); from United States of America, Bureau of the Census, Twelfth Census of the United States, 1910 Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH, Ward 2 (Washington, D.C., National Archives and Records Administration: 1900), Roll T624 1212, E. D. 107, Page 1A.
4. Ancestry.com, World War I Draft Registration Cards [database on-line], (Provo, UT, The Generations Network, Inc.: 2005).
5. Familysearch.org, "Ohio, Deaths, 1908-1953," [database on-line], (Genealogical Society of Utah, Salt Lake City:2013), image of State of Ohio Department of Health death certificate #1613, 1935, Mahoning Co. 6. Staatsarchiv Hamburg, Hamburg Passenger Lists, 1850-1934 [database on-line], Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2008; from Staatsarchiv Hamburg, Bestand: 373-7 I, VIII (Auswanderungsamt I), Mikrofilmrollen [-], Indirekt Band 72, ship Amerika, p. 61. U. S. passenger lists are dated according to their arrival, not their departure.
7. Ancestry.com, Baltimore Passenger Lists, 1820-1948 [database on-line], Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2006; from National Archives and Records Administration, Passenger Lists of Vessel Arriving at Baltimore, MD, 1820-1891, Roll M255 44, ship Polynesian, p. 2.
8. Ancestry.com, Baltimore Passenger Lists, 1820-1948 [database on-line], Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2006; from National Archives and Records Administration, Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at Baltimore, MD, 1820-1891, Roll M255 46, ship Hermann, p. 7.
9. Warren Blatt, "Jewish Given Names in Eastern Europe and the U. S.," Avotaynu, 14:3 (Fall 1998), pp. 9-15.
10. Jewish Records Indexing Poland.
11. The Jewish name Levy was often changed to Louis in the United States. While Samuel may have chosen this middle name (his brother Jack reportedly chose the middle name Leonard as an adult), Levy may have been one of two possible names given him in Russia/Poland.
12. He provided this birth date on his World War I draft registration card (cited above).
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